" Tirukkural "
Thiruvalluvar is a celebrated Tamil poet and philosopher whose contribution to Tamil literature is the Thirukkural, a work on ethics.
He has been said to have been a weaver and the supposed house he lived is now converted to a temple. Thirukkural is one of the most revered ancient works in the Tamil language. It is considered a 'common creed', providing a guide for human morals and betterment in life. Thirukkural has been translated into several languages, including a translation into Latin by Constanzo Beschi in 1730, which helped make the work known to European intellectuals.
Thirukkural is a combined word formed by joining the two words Thiru (meaning revered) and Kural (is a form of poem writing style, like Ballad in English Poems. Other forms of poem writing styles in Tamil are Venpa, Yaappu etc.). Thirukkural is divided into three sections: section one deals with Aram, good ethical behavior with conscience and honor ("right conduct"); section two discusses Porul, the right manner of conducting worldly affairs; and section three dwells on Inbam, love between men and women. Each chapter consists of 10 couplets or kurals, for a total of 1330 couplets. Although two sections, Aram and Inbam, are devoted to the private life of an individual more than half the couplets in Thirukural are grouped under Porul which discusses ethics in public life. Thus Thiruvalluvar gives more importance to righteous living in public life.